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LoRa Configuration

The LoRa config options are: Region, Modem Preset, Max Hops, Transmit Power, Bandwidth, Spread Factor, Coding Rate, Frequency Offset, Transmit Enabled, Frequency Slot, Ignore Incoming Array, Ignore MQTT, Override Duty Cycle Limit, SX126x RX Boosted Gain, and Override Frequency. LoRa config uses an admin message sending a Config.LoRa protobuf.


In order to communicate fully, devices within a mesh must have identical settings for Region and Modem Preset, or identical custom Modem settings.

LoRa Config Values


You must set your device's lora.region setting. This will ensure that you are operating within the legal limits for your area.


Sets the region for your node. Default is unset. As long as this is not set, the node screen will display a message and not transmit any packets.

Region CodeDescriptionFrequency Range (MHz)Duty Cycle (%)Power Limit (dBm)
USUnited States902.0 - 928.010030
EU_433European Union 433MHz433.0 - 434.01012
EU_868European Union 868MHz869.4 - 869.651027
CNChina470.0 - 510.010019
JPJapan920.8 - 927.810016
ANZAustralia & New Zealand915.0 - 928.010030
KRKorea920.0 - 923.0100
TWTaiwan920.0 - 925.010027
RURussia868.7 - 869.210020
INIndia865.0 - 867.010030
NZ_865New Zealand 865MHz864.0 - 868.010036
THThailand920.0 - 925.010016
UA_433Ukraine 433MHz433.0 - 434.71010
UA_868Ukraine 868MHz868.0 - 868.6114
MY_433Malaysia 433MHz433.0 - 435.010020
MY_919Malaysia 919MHz919.0 - 924.010027
SG_923Singapore 923MHz917.0 - 925.010020
LORA_242.4 GHz band worldwide2400.0 - 2483.510010

EU_433 and EU_868 have to adhere to an hourly duty cycle limitation of 10%, calculated every minute on a rolling 1-hour basis. Your device will stop transmitting if you reach it, until it is allowed again.

Modem Preset

Default is unset which equates to LONG_FAST. Presets are pre-defined modem settings (Bandwidth, Spread Factor, and Coding Rate) which influence both message speed and range. The default will provide a strong mixture of speed and range, for most users.

The presets are designed to provide further options for optimizing either speed (and reduced network congestion) or range, which can be useful for two real world scenarios:

  1. A high number of devices exist in the mesh, or messages are sent very frequently. Faster speeds (and therefore lower radio time per device) can help with mesh network congestion.
  2. Maximum range is desired, for long range scenarios where a several second delay in message receipt is acceptable (for instance, attempting to send messages from a town to a distant mountain top).

The Presets available are as follows, and follow a linear pattern of Fastest <--> Slowest, and Shortest <--> Longest range:

  1. SHORT_FAST (Fastest, highest bandwidth, lowest airtime, shortest range)




  5. LONG_FAST (Default)



  8. VERY_LONG_SLOW (Slowest, lowest bandwidth, highest airtime, longest range. Not recommended for regular usage as does not form meshes well and is unreliable)

Max Hops

Maximum number of hops. This can't be greater than 7. Default is 3 which should be fine for most applications. Really, 3 is fine.

Hop Count

Transmit Power

If zero then, use default max legal continuous power (i.e. something that won't burn out the radio hardware)

In most cases you should use zero here. Units are in dBm.


Certain bandwidth numbers are 'special' and will be converted by the device firmware to the appropriate floating point value:

Special ValueInterpreted As
3131.25 kHz
6262.5 kHz
200203.125 kHz
400406.25 kHz
800812.5 kHz
16001625.0 kHz

Please be aware that values < 62.5kHz may require a TCXO on some hardware devices.

Spread Factor

A number from 7 to 12. Indicates the number of chirps per symbol as 1[<<]spread_factor.

Coding Rate

The denominator of the coding rate. ie for 4/5, the value is 5. 4/8 the value is 8.

Frequency Offset

This parameter is for advanced users with advanced test equipment, we do not recommend most users use it.

A frequency offset that is added to to the calculated band center frequency. Used to correct for crystal calibration errors.

Transmit Enabled

Allows you to enable and disable transmit (TX) from the LoRa radio. Useful for hot-swapping antennas and other tests.

Defaults to true

Frequency Slot

This setting controls the actual hardware frequency at which the radio transmits, represented by a frequency slot between 1 and NUM_SLOTS (the maximum for the current region and modem preset). If set to 0/UNSET, the device reverts to the older channel name hash-based algorithm for determining the frequency slot.

Ignore Incoming Array

For testing it is useful sometimes to force a node to never listen to particular other nodes (simulating radio out of range). All nodenums listed in the ignore_incoming array will have packets they send dropped on receive (by router.cpp)

Ignore MQTT

Setting this to option to 'true' means the device will ignore any messages it receives via LoRa that came via MQTT somewhere along the path towards the device. Note this only works when your device and the MQTT node are running at least firmware version 2.2.19.

Override Duty Cycle Limit

Setting this option to 'true' means the device will ignore the hourly duty cycle limit in Europe. This means that you might violate regulations if the device transmits too much. By default, this option is set to 'false,' which means the device will stop sending data when it reaches the hourly limit and will start again when it is allowed to do so.

SX126x RX Boosted Gain

This is an option specific to the SX126x chip series which allows the chip to consume a small amount of additional power to increase RX sensitivity.

Override Frequency

This parameter is for advanced users and licensed HAM radio operators. When enabled, the channel calculation will be ignored, and the set frequency will be used instead (frequency_offset still applies). This will allow you to use out-of-band frequencies. Please respect your local laws and regulations. If you are a license HAM operator, make sure you enable HAM mode and turn off encryption.

LoRa Config Client Availability



All LoRa config options are available on iOS, iPadOS and macOS at Settings > Radio Configuration > LoRa.