Meshtastic is not LoRaWAN, Helium or TTN (TheThingsNetwork). Meshtastic uses the full spectrum frequency range designated to LoRa technology per region. This allows for several hundred possible frequency channels in the US region alone.
Power limits will generally be lifted in the software if
is_licensed is set to
true. See HAM Mode for more information.
Europe Frequency Bands
The maximum power allowed for Europe is +14 dBm ERP (Effective Radiated Power).
The band range is from 433 to 434 MHz.
There are four channels defined with the standard radio preset
LongFast. After factory reset the radio will be set to channel 3 with a center frequency of 433.875 MHz.
The maximum power allowed for Europe is +27 dBm ERP (Effective Radiated Power).
The band range is from 869.40 to 869.65 MHz. This is less than the 863–870 MHz range defined as SRD Band, but allows for a higher ERP and a duty cycle of 10%.
There is one channel defined with the standard radio preset
LongFast. After factory reset the radio will be set to channel 0 with a center frequency of 869.525 MHz.
North America Frequency Bands
915 MHz (ISM Band)
The maximum output power for North America is +30 dBm ERP (Effective Radiated Power).
The band range is from 902 to 928 MHz.
There are 104 channels defined with the standard radio preset
LongFast. After factory reset the radio will be set to channel 19 with a center frequency of 906.875 MHz.
Various data-rate options are available when configuring a channel and are inversely proportional to the theoretical range of the devices.
- Spreading Factor - How much we "spread" our data over time.
- Each step up in Spreading Factor doubles the airtime to transmit.
- Each step up in Spreading Factor adds about 2.5db extra link budget.
- Bandwidth - How big of a slice of the spectrum we use.
- Each doubling of the bandwidth is almost 3db less link budget.
- Bandwidths less than 31 may be unstable unless you have a high quality Crystal Oscillator.
- Coding Rate - How much redundancy we encode to resist noise.
- Increasing coding rate increases reliability while decreasing data-rate.
- 4/5 - 1.25x overhead
- 4/6 - 1.5x overhead
- 4/7 - 1.75x overhead
- 4/8 - 2x overhead
We have six predefined channels. These are the most common settings and have been proven to work well:
|Channel setting||Alt Channel Name||Data-Rate||SF / Symbols||Coding Rate||Bandwidth||Link Budget|
|Short Range / Fast||Short Fast||6.8 kbps||7 / 128||4/8||250||137dB|
|Short Range / Slow||Short Slow||3.9 kbps||8 / 256||4/8||250||140dB|
|Medium Range / Fast||Medium Fast||2.2 kbps||9 / 512||4/8||250||143dB|
|Medium Range / Slow||Medium Slow||1.2 kbps||10 / 1024||4/8||250||146dB|
|Long Range / Fast||Long Fast||0.67 kbps (default)||11 / 2048||4/8||250||148.5dB|
|Long Range / Slow||Long Slow||0.18 kbps||12 / 4096||4/8||125||154dB|
|Very Long Range - Slow||Very Long Slow||0.05 kbps||12 / 4096||4/8||31.25||160.1dB|
The link budget used by these calculations assumes a transmit power of 17dBm and an antenna with 0dB gain. Adjust your link budget assumptions based on your actual devices. Data-rate in this table is actual measured but doesn't count mesh overhead, hops and re-transmissions.
You may want to select other channels for your usage. The other settings can be set by using the Python API.
meshtastic --ch-set spread_factor 10 --ch-set coding_rate 4 --ch-set bandwidth 125 --ch-index 0
After applying the settings, you will need to restart the device. After your device is restarted, it will generate a new crypto key and you will need to share the newly generated QR Code or URL to all your other devices.
Some example settings:
|Data-rate||SF / Symbols||Coding Rate||Bandwidth||Link Budget||Note|
|37.50 kbps||6 / 64||4/5||500||129dB||Fastest possible speed|
|3.125 kbps||8 / 256||4/5||125||143dB|
|1.953 kbps||8 / 256||4/8||125||143dB|
|1.343 kbps||11 / 2048||4/8||500||145dB|
|1.099 kbps||9 / 512||4/8||125||146dB|
|0.814 kbps||10 / 1024||4/6||125||149dB|
|0.610 kbps||10 / 1024||4/8||125||149dB|
|0.488 kbps||11 / 2048||4/6||125||152dB|
|0.336 kbps||11 / 2048||4/8||125||152dB|
|0.073 kbps||12 / 4096||4/5||31||160dB||Twice the range and/or coverage of "Long Slow", low resilience to noise|
|0.046 kbps||12 / 4096||4/8||31||160dB||Twice the range and/or coverage of "Long Slow", high resilience to noise|
The link budget used by these calculations assumes a transmit power of 17dBm and an antenna with 0dB gain. Adjust your link budget assumptions based on your actual devices.
These channel settings may have not been tested. Use at your own discretion. Share on https://meshtastic.discourse.group with your successes or failure.
The pre-shared key (PSK) used by the devices can be modified.
- 0 = No crypto
- 1 = Default channel key
- 2 - 10 = The default channel key, except with 1 through 9 added to the last byte
Use of cryptography can also be modified. To disable cryptography (maybe useful if you have Ham radio license):
meshtastic --setchan psk 0